What is AI (Artificial Intelligence )? and its characteristics

Definition :
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the ability of a computer program or a machine to think and learn. It is also a field of study which tries to make computers "smart". They work on their own without being encoded with commands.

Types of AI :

REACTIVE MACHINES: The most basic type of AI is purely reactive ,it does not store any memory of past or predict ( calculate ) future happenings.

This type of AI is only applicable to specific applications and the principle is choosing the best decision among several options.examples: Deep Blue, IBM’s chess-playing supercomputer

LIMITED MEMORY : this type 2 kind of AI machines are distinct from reactive machine in such a way that it can make optimum decisions based on the past information ( data ).

examples: self driving cars.

THEORY OF MIND: The understanding that people,creatures and objects can have thoughts or emotions which effect their own behavior.

This point is the important divide between the machines we have and the machines we will build in the future.

SELF-AWARENESS: The final step of AI development is to build systems that can form representations about themselves.

This is, in a sense, an extension of the “theory of mind” possessed by Type III artificial intelligence. Consciousness is also called “self-awareness” for a reason. (“I want that item” is a very different statement from “I know I want that item.”)

Levels of AI :

  1. Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI): Sometimes referred to as Weak AI, Artificial Narrow Intelligence is AI that specializes in one area. There’s AI that can beat the world chess champion in chess, but that’s the only thing it does. Ask it to figure out a better way to store data on a hard drive, and it’ll look at you blankly.
  2. Artificial General Intelligence (AGI): Sometimes referred to as Strong AI, or Human-Level AI, Artificial General Intelligence refers to a computer that is as smart as a human across the board—a machine that can perform any intellectual task that a human being can. Creating an AGI is a much harder task than creating an ANI, and we’re yet to do it. 
  3. Artificial Super intelligence (ASI): Oxford philosopher and leading AI thinker Nick Bostrom defines super intelligence as “an intellect that is much smarter than the best human brains in practically every field, including scientific creativity, general wisdom and social skills.” 

Characteristics :

==>Can manipulate large number of symbolic information to a greater extend
==>Problem solving
==>AI problems has large solution set
==>Learning Ability
==>Cope with situational problems and explore solutions at same time
==>Solving AI problem with or without AI technique.
Some other characteristics are:
==>Rational Thinking
==>Fast Decision Making / Fast Calculation
==>Plan Creation and Execution
Applications (Scope) :
Artificial intelligence, defined as intelligence exhibited by machines, has many applications in today's society.
for example:

  • Knowledge reasoning.
  • Planning.
  • Machine learning.
  • Natural language processing.
  • Computer vision.
  • Robotics.

Future of AI :

Future Scope of Artificial IntelligenceArtificial Intelligence(AI) is the simulation of human intelligence by machines. In other words, it is the method by which machines demonstrate certain aspects of human intelligence like learning, reasoning and self- correction.

if any doubts or queries please comment 🙂


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